"Brief History" References: H-P

Table of Contents

Clicking on any marked section on the list below brings up a file containing it and all unmarked sections immediately following it on the list. This list is repeated at the beginning of each file.

  1. Introduction
  2. Discovery of the Radiation Belts
  3. Artificial Belts and Early Studies
  4. The Large Scale Structure
  5. Convection
  6. Reconnection
  7. The Open Magnetosphere
  8. Observational Tests
  9. The Polar Aurora
  10. Field Aligned Voltage Drops
  11. Birkeland Currents
  12. Substorms: Early Observations
  13. Substorms: The Satellite Era
  14. Substorms: Theory
  15. Convection in the Geotail
  16. Planetary Magnetospheres
  17. Other Areas
  18. Assessment
References: A-G
References: H-P
References: Q-Z
Back to "Exploration"


Note: Journals are cited by their most recent name; for instance, "Reviews of Geophysics" was "Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics" in 1970-1984. The mark (c) indicates the first in a collection of articles.

Hallinan, Thomas J.
Auroral spirals, 2. Theory, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 3959-3965, 1976.

Hanson, William B. and R. A. Heelis
Techniques of measuring bulk gas motions from Satellites, Space Sci. Instr., 1, 493-524, 1975.

Hapgood, M.A.
Space physics coordinate transformations: a user's guide, Planet. Space Sci., 40, 711-717, 1992.

Harang, Leiv
The Aurorae, x + 166 pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1951.

Hardy, David A.
H.Kent Hills and John W. Freeman, Jr., A new plasma regime in the distant geomagnetic tail,Geophys. Res. Lett. , 2, 169-172, 1975

Hardy, David A., H. Kent Hills and John W. Freeman, Jr.
Occurence of lobe plasma at lunar distance, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 72, 1979.

Hau, Lin-Ni, R.A. Wolf, C.H. Voigt and C.C. Wu
Steady state magnetic field configurations for the Earth's magnetotail, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1303-16, 1989.

Heelis, Rodney A., W.B. Hanson and J.L. Burch
Ion convection velocity reversals in the dayside cleaft, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 3803-3809, 1976.

Heelis, Rodney A., W.B. Hanson, C.R. Lippincott, L.H. Harmon, B.J. Holt, J.E. Doherty and R.A. Power
The ion drift meter for Dynamics Explorer B, Space Sci. Instrum., 5, 511-521, 1981.

Helliwell, Robert A.
Whistlers and Related Ionospheric Phenomena, 349 pp., Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 1965.

Heppner, James P.
The world magnetic survey, Space Sci. Rev., 2, 315-354, 1963.

Heppner, James D.
Recent measurements of the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere and boundary regions, Space Sci. Rev., 7, 166-190, 1967.

Heppner, James P.
Electric field variations during substorms: Ogo-6 measurements, Planet. Space Sci., 20, 1475-1498, 1972a.

Heppner, James P.
The Harang discontinuity in auroral belt ionospheric currents, Geophys. Publ., 29, 105-120, 1972b.

Heppner, James P.
Polar cap electric field distributions related to the interplanetary magnetic field direction, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 4877-4887, 1972c.

Heppner, James P.
Empirical models of high-latitude electric fields, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 1115-1125, 1977.

Heppner, J.P., N.F. Ness, C.S. Scearce a,d T.L. Skillman
Explorer 10 magnetic field measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 1-46. 1963.

Heppner, James P. and Nelson C. Maynard
Empirical high-latitude electric field models, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4467-4489, 1987.

Hess, Wilmot N.
Energetic perticles in the inner Van Allen Belt, Space Sci. Rev., 1, 278-312, 1962.

Hess, Wilmot N., editor
The Physics of Solar Flares (proc. of AAS-NASA Symposium), NASA SP-50, 1964.

Hess, Wilmot N.
The Radiation Belt and Magnetosphere, viii+548 pp., Blaisdell Publ. Co., Waltham 1968.

Hess, Wilmot N., G. Mead and M.P. Nakada
Advances in particles and field research in the satellite era, Reviews of Geophysics, 3, 521-570, 1965.

Hesse, Michael and Karl Schindler
A theoretical foundation of general magnetic reconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5559-5567, 1988.

Hines, Colin
The magnetopause: a new frontier in space, Science, 141, 130-136, 1963.

Hines, Colin O.
Hydromagnetic motions in the magnetosphere, Space Sci. Rev., 3, 342-379, 1964

Hines, Colin O. and colleagues
The Upper Atmosphere in Motion, 1027 pp., Geophysical Monograph 18, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1974.

Hines, Colin O.
Origins of the 1961 Axford-Hines paper on magnetospheric convection, Eos, 67, 634, 1986. (Reprinted in History of Geophysics, 4, S. Gillmor, editor, pp. 97-98, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1990)

Hoffman, Robert A.
The magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere as a system: Dynamics Explorer 5 years later, Rev. Geophys., 26, 209-214, 1988.

Hoffman, Robert A., G.D. Hogan and R.C. Maehl (c)
Dynamics Explorer spacecraft and ground operations systems, Space Sci. Instrument., 5, 349-367, 1981.

Holzer, Robert E. and J.A. Slavin
Magnetic flux transfer associated with expansions and contractions of the dayside magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 3831-3839, 1978.

Hones, Edward W., Jr.
The magnetotail: its generation and dissipation, in Physics of Solar-Planetary Environments, pp. 558-571, D.J. Williams, editor, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., 1976.

Hones, Edward J., Jr.
Substorm processes in the magnetotail: Comments on 'On hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the Earth's magnetotail' by L.A. Frank, K.L. Ackerson and R.P. Lepping, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 5633-40 , 1977.

Hones, Edward W. Jr.
Comment on "on hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs and boundary layers in the Earth's magnetotail" by L.A. Frank. K.L. Ackerson and R.P. Lepping, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1183-1186, 1978a.

Hones, E.W. Jr.
Processes at the magnetotail boundary: Comment on "on hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs and boundary layers in the Earth's magnetotail" by L.A. Frank. K.L. Ackerson and R.P. Lepping, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 2216-2227, 1978b.

Hones, E.W. Jr.
Some characteristics of rapidly flowing magnetotail plasmas: further comments on "on hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs and boundary layers in the Earth's magnetotail" by L.A. Frank. K.L. Ackerson and R.P. Lepping, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 3358-3364, 1978c.

Hones, Edward W., Jr.
Transient phenomena in the magnetotail and their relation to substorms, Space Sci. Rev., 23, 393-410, 1979.

Hones, Edward W., Jr. (ed.)
Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas, Geophysical Monograph 30, AGU, Washington, DC, 1984a.

Hones, Edward W., Jr.
Historical note on Ronald G. Giovanelli, pp. v-vi in, Magnetic Reconnection in Space and Laboratory Plasmas, AGU, Washington, DC, 1984b.

Hones, Edward W., Jr.
J.R. Asbridge, S.J. Bame and I.B. Strong, Outward flow of plasma in the magnetotail following geomagnetic bays, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 5879-92, 1967.

Hones, Edward W., Jr.
S.I. Akasofu, P. Perreault, S.J. Bame and Sidney Singer, Poleward expansion of the auroral oval and associated phenomena in the magnetotail during auroral substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 7060-7074, 1970.

Huang, Cheryl Y. and Louis A. Frank
A statistical study of the central plasma sheet: Implications for substorm models, Geophys. Res. Let., 13, 652-655, 1986.

Hughes, W.Jeffrey
Hydromagnetic Waves in the Magnetosphere, Rev. Geophys., 21, 508-520, 1983.

Hultqvist, Bengt (c)
The Viking project. Geophys. Res. Lett, 14, 379-382, 1987.

Hunten, Donald, M. and Thomas M. Donahue
Hydrogen glows from the terrestrial planets, Annu. Rev. Earth. Planet. Sci., 4, p. 265-292, 1976.

Iijima, Takesi and Thomas A. Potemra
The amplitude distribution of field-aligned currents at northern high latitudes observed by Triad, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2165-2174, 1976a.

Iijima, Takesi and Thomas A. Potemra
Field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp observed by Triad, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 5971-5979, 1976b.

Ismail, Syed, D.D. Wallis and L.L. Cogger
Characteristics of polar cap sun-aligned arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4741-4749, 1977.

Iyemori, T., H. Maeda,and T. Kamei
Impulse response of geomagnetic indices to interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geomag. Geoelectr.,31, 1-9, 1979.

Jaggi, Radhe K. and Richard A. Wolf
Self-consistent calculation of the motion of a sheet of ions in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 2852-2866, 1973.

Jackson, John E. and James I. Vette
OGO Program Summary, 310 pp.NASA document SP-7601, NASA, Washington, D.C. 1975.

Johnson, Francis S.
The gross character of the geomagnetic field in the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., 65, 3049-3051, 1960.

Johnson, Francis S.
The driving force for magnetospheric convection, Rev. Geophys., 16, 161-167, 1978.

Johnson, Richard G
Energetic ion composition in the Earth's magnetosphere, Rev. Geophys., 17, 696-704, 1979.

Kan. Joseph R.
Developing a global model of magnetospheric substorms, Eos, 71, 1083, 1086-7, 18 September 1990.

Kan, Joseph R., L. Zhu and S.-I. Akasofu
A theory of substorms: onset and subsidence, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5624-5640,1988.

Keath, Edwin P, E.C. Roelof, C.O. Bostrom and D.J. Williams, Roelof
Fluxes of >50 keV protons and >30 keV electrons at about 35 RE 2. Morphology and flow patterns in the magnetotail, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2315-26, 1976.

Kelley, Michael, C.
The Earth's Ionosphere--Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics, ix + 487 pp., Academic Press, 1989.

Kellogg, Paul J.
Possible explanation of the radiation observed by Van Allen at high altitudes in satellites, Nuovo Cimento, 11, 48-66, 1959.

Kellogg, Paul J.
Flow of plasma around the Earth, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3805-3811, 1962.

Kennel, Charles F.
Consequences of a Magnetospheric Plasma, Rev. Geophys., 7, 379-419, 1969.

Kennel, Charles F.
Neil Mather Brice, 1934-1974, Eos, 66, 1353-1355, 1985. (Reprinted in History of Geophysics, 4, S. Gillmor, editor, pp. 253-255, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1990.)

Kennel, Charles F.
Critical Mach numbers in classical magnetohydrodynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 13,427-13,437, 1987.

Kennel. Charles F., J.P. Edmiston and T. Hada
A quarter century of collisionless shock research, in Collisionless shocks in the heliosphere: a tutorial review, R. G. Stone and B.T. Tsurutani, editors, pp. 1-36, Geophysical Monograph 34, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1985.

Kennel, Charles F. and Harry E. Petschek
Limit on stably trapped particle fluxed, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 1-28, 1966.

Knight, S.
Parallel electric fields, Planet, Space Sci., 21, 741-750, 1973.

Langel, Robert A.
Near-Earth magnetic disturbance in total field at high latitude, 1. Summary of data from Ogo 2, 4 and 6, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2663--2671, 1974

Lanzerotti, Louis J. and David J. Southwood
Hydromagnetic waves, p. 109-135 in vol. 3 of Solar System Plasma Physics, C.F. Kennel, L.J. Lanzerotti and E.N. Parker, eds., North Holland 1979.

Lee, Lou C. and Z.F. Fu
A Theory of magnetic flux transfer at the Earth's magnetopause, Geophys. Res. Lett.,12, 105-108, 1985.

Le Galley, Donald P.
Space Science, xviii+668 pp., John Wiley and Sons, 1963.

Lemaire, Joseph
The mechanisms of formation of the plasmapause, Ann. Geophys., 31, 175-190, 1975.

Lepping, Ronald P.
Characteristics of the magnetopauses of the magnetized planets, in Physics of the Magnetopause, B.U.O.Sonnerup and P. Song, editors, p. 61-70, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1995.

Levy, R.H., H.E. Petschek and G.L. Siscoe
Aerodynamic aspects of the magnetospheric flow, AIAA J., 2, 2065-2076, 1964.

Liemohn, Harold B.
The lifetimes of radiation belt protons with energies between 1 keV and 1 Mev, J. Geophys. Res., 66, 3593-3595, 1961.

Longanecker, Gerald W., and R.A. Hoffman (c)
S3-A spacecraft and experiment description, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 4711-4717, 1973.

Lopez, Ramon E. and Daniel N.Baker
Evidence for particle acceleration during magnetospheric substorms, Astroph.J. Suppl., 90, 531-539, 1994.

Ludwig, George H.
The orbiting geophysical observatories, Space Sci. Rev., 2, 175-218, 1963.

Lui, Anthony T.Y.
Extended consideration of a synthesis model for magnetospheric substorms, in Magnetospheric Substorms, J.R. Kan, T.A. Potemra, S. Kokubun and T. Iijima, editors, p. 43-60, Geophysical Monograph 64, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C. 1991

Lui, Anthony T.Y. and C.D. Anger
A uniform belt of diffuse auroral emission seen by the Isis-2 scanning photometers, Planet. Space Sci., 21, 799-809, 1973.

Lui, Anthony T.Y.
R.W. McEntire and S.M. Krimigis, Evolution of the ring current during two geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7459-7470, 1987.

Lui, Anthony T.Y. and D.C. Hamilton
Radial profiles of quiet-time magnetospheric parameters, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 19,325--19,332, 1992.

Manka, Robert H., T.A. Fritz, R.G. Johnson, R.A. Wolf, M.J. Teague and J.I. Vette
Overview of the IMS July 29, 1977, Magnetic Storm Analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 5871-5880, 1982.

Mansurov, S.M.
New evidence of a relationship between magnetic fields in space and on Earth, Geomag. Aeron., 9, 622-623, 1969.

Mauk, Barry H. and C.-I. Meng
Plasma injection during substorms, Physica Scripta, T18, 128-139, 1987.

Mayaud, P.N.
Derivation, Meaning and Use of Geomagnetic Indices, vi+154 pp., Geophysical Monograph 22, Amer. Geophys. Union, 1980.

McIlwain, Carl E.
Direct measurement of particles producing visible auroras, J. Geophys. Res., 65, 2727-2747, 1960.

McIlwain, Carl E.
The radiation belts, natural and artificial, Science, 142, 355-361, 1963.

McPherron, Robert L.
Growth phase of magnetospheric substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 5592-5599, 1970.

McPherron, Robert L.
Substorm related changes in the geomagnetic tail: the growth phase, Planet. Space Sci., 20, 1521-39, 1972.

McPherron, Robert L.
Magnetospheric Substorms, Rev. Geophys., 17, 657-681, 1979.

McPherron, Robert L., C. T. Russell and M. P. Aubry
Satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms on August 15, 1968, 9., Phenomenological model for substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 3131-3149, 1973.

McPherron, Robert L. and J.N. Barfield
A seasonal change in the effect of field-aligned currents at synchronous orbit, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 6743-6746, 1980.

Mencke-Hansen, A., A. Bahnsen and N. D'Angelo
The cusp-magnetosheath interface, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 556-561, 1976.

Meng, C.-I., R.H. Holzworth and S.-I. Akasofu
Auroral circle--delineating the poleward boundary of the quiet auroral belt, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 164-172, 1977.

Meredith, Leslie H., M.B. Gottlieb and J.A. Van Allen
Direct detection of soft radiation above 50 kilometers in the auroral zone, Phys. Rev., 97, 201-205, 1955.

Mizera, Paul F. et al.
The aurora inferred from S3-3 particles and fields, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2329-2339, 1981.

Mozer, Forrest et al.
Observation of paired electrostatic shocks in the polar magnetosphere, Phys. Rev. Lett., 38, 292-295, 1977.

Nagai, Tsugunobu, D.N. Baker and P.R. Higbie
Development of substorm activity in multiple-onset substorms at synchronous orbit, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6994-7004, 1983.

Naugle, John E. (introducer)
Scientific Findings from Explorer VI, 381 pp., NASA document SP-54, U.S. Printing Office, 1965.

Ness, Norman F.
The Earth's magnetic tail, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 2989-3005, 1965.

Ness, Norman F.
The geomagnetic tail, Rev. Geophys., 7, 97-127, 1969.

Ness, Norman F.
Magnetometers for space research, Space Sci. Rev., 11, 459-554, 1970.

Ness, Norman F.
The magnetic fields of Mercury, Mars and Moon, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 7, 249-288, 1979.

Ness, Norman F.
Magnetotail research: the early years, pp. 11-20 in Magnetotail Physics, edited by A.T.Y. Lui, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

Ness, Norman F., C.S.Scearce and J.B. Seek
Initial results of the IMP-1 magnetic field experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 3531-3569, 1964.

Ness, Norman F., M.H. Acuna, R.P. Lepping, L.F.Burlaga, K.W.Behannon and F.M.Neubauer
Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 2: Preliminary results, Science, 206, 966-972, 1979.

Newcomb, William A.
Motion of magnetic lines of force, Ann. Phys., NY, 3, 347-385, 1958.

Newell, Homer E., Jr., (editor)
Sounding Rockets, 334 pp., McGraw Hill, NY 1959.

Newell, Homer E., Jr.
Beyond the Atmosphere, NASA Special Publication 4211, xviii + 497 pp., , Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC 1980.

Nishida, Atsuhiro
Formation of plasmapause, or magnetospheric plasma knee, by the combined action of magnetospheric convection and plasma escape from the tail, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 5669-5679, 1966.

Nishida, Atsuhiro, and T. Mukai, T. Yamamoto, Y. Saito, S. Kokubun and K. Maezawa
Geotail observations of magnetospheric convection in the distant tail at 200 RE in quiet times, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 22,663-22,675 , 1995.

Northrop, T.G. and E. Teller
Stability of the adiabatic motion of charged particles in the earth's field, Phys. Rev., 117, 215-225, 1960.

O'Brien, Brian J.
Lifetime of outer zone electrons and their precipitation into the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3687-3706, 1962.

O'Brien, Brian J.
Review of studies of trapped radiation with satellite-borne apparatus, Space Science Reviews, 1, 415-484, 1963.

O'Brien, Brian J.
Energetic charged particles in the magnetosphere, p. 169-211 in Solar-Terrestrial Physics, J.W. King and W.S. Newman, eds., Academic Press, London 1967.

O'Brien, Brian J., C.D. Laughlin and D.A. Gurnett (c)
High-latitude geophysical studies with satellite Injun 3, 1. Description of the satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 1-12, 1964.

O'Brien, Brian J. and H. Taylor
High-latitude geophysical studies with the satellite Injun III, 4. Auroras and their excitation, J. Geophys. Res., 69, 45-63, 1964.

Odishaw, Hugh and Stanley Ruttenberg (eds.)
Geophysics and the IGY, v+210 pp., Geophysical Monograph 2, American Geophysical Union, 1958.

Ogilvie, Keith W., A. Durney and T. von Rosenvinge (c)
Description of experimental investigations and instruments for the ISEE spacecraft, IEEE Trans. Geoscience Electr., GE-16, 151-153, 1978.

Parker, Eugene N.
The solar-flare phenomenon and the theory of reconnection and annihilation of magnetic fields, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 8, Supplement #77, 177-211, 1963.

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos
A review of anomalous resistivity for the ionosphere, Rev. Geophys., 15, 113-127, 1977.

Paschmann, Goetz, G. Haerendel, N. Sckopke and H. Rosenbauer
Plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the distant polar cusp near local noon: the entry layer, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2883-2899, 1976.

Paschmann, Goetz, B.U.O. Sonnerup, I. Papamastorakis, N. Sckopke, G. Haerendel, S.J.
Bame, J.R. Asbridge, J.T. Gosling, C.T. Russell and R.C. Elphic Plasma acceleration at the Earth's magnetopause: evidence for reconnection, Nature, 282, 283-286, 1979.

Perreault, Paul and Syun-Ichi Akasofu
A study of geomagnetic storms, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 54, 547-573, 1978.

Persson, Hans
Electric field along a magnetic line of force in a low-density plasma, Phys. Fluids, 6, 1756-1759, 1963.

Persson, Hans
Electric field parallel to the magnetic field in a low density plasma, Phys. Fluids, 9, 1090-1098, 1966.

Petschek, Harry E.
Magnetic field annihilation, p. 425-439 in The Physics of Solar Flares (proc. of AAS-NASA Symposium), Wilmot N. Hess, ed., NASA SP-50, 1964.

Petschek, Harry E.
Concept of fast reconnection, in Physics of the Magnetopause, B.U.O.Sonnerup and P. Song, editors, p. 21-28Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., 1995.

Pickering, William H.
History of the Juno cluster system, in Astronautical Engineering and Science, pp. 201-214., Ernest Stuhlinger, Frederick I. Ordway III, Jerry C. McCall and George C. Bucher, editors, McGraw Hill, 1963.

Pike, Charles P. and J.A. Whalen
Satellite observations of auroral substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 985-1000, 1974.

Pomerantz, Martin A.
Scott E. Forbush 1904-1984, Eos, 65, 473-474, 1984 (reprinted in p. 187-189 of History of Geophysics, vol 2, C.S. Gillmor, ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC 1986).

Last updated 25 November 2001
Re-formatted 9-28-2004