"Brief History" References: Q-Z

Table of Contents

Clicking on any marked section on the list below brings up a file containing it and all unmarked sections immediately following it on the list. This list is repeated at the beginning of each file.

  1. Introduction
  2. Discovery of the Radiation Belts
  3. Artificial Belts and Early Studies
  4. The Large Scale Structure
  5. Convection
  6. Reconnection
  7. The Open Magnetosphere
  8. Observational Tests
  9. The Polar Aurora
  10. Field Aligned Voltage Drops
  11. Birkeland Currents
  12. Substorms: Early Observations
  13. Substorms: The Satellite Era
  14. Substorms: Theory
  15. Convection in the Geotail
  16. Planetary Magnetospheres
  17. Other Areas
  18. Assessment
References: A-G
References: H-P
References: Q-Z
Back to "Exploration"


Note: Journals are cited by their most recent name; for instance, "Reviews of Geophysics" was "Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics" in 1970-1984. The mark (c) indicates the first in a collection of articles.

Rees, Manfred H. and R.G. Roble
Observations and theory of the formation of stable auroral arcs, Rev. Geophys., 13, 201-242, 1975.

Reiff, Patricia H., Robert W. Spiro and Thomas W. Hill
Dependence of polar cap potential drop on interplanetary parameters, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 7639-7648, 1981 (erratum, 87, 2579).

Reiff, Patricia and J.L. Burch
IMF By-dependent plasma flow and Birkeland currents in the dayside magnetosphere, 2. A global model for northward and southward IMF, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 1595-1609, 1985.

Rich, Frederick J. and M. Susan Gussenhoven
The absence of region 1/region 2 field-aligned currents during prolonged quiet times, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 689-692, 1987.

Roelof, Edward C., E.P. Keath and T. Iijima
Fluxes of >50 keV protons and >30 keV electrons at about 35 RE 1. Velocity anisotropies and plasma flow in the magnetotail, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2304-14, 1976.

Roelof, Edward C. and David G. Sibeck
Magnetopause shape as bivariate function of interplanetary magnetic field Bz and solar wind dynamic pressure, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 21,421-450, 1993; correction, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8787-88, 1994.. [2.6]

Rosenbauer, Helmut, H. Grünwaldt, M.D. Montgomery, G. Paschmann and N. Sckopke
Heos 2 plasma observations in the distant polar magnetosphere: the plasma mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 2723-2737, 1975.

Rosenbluth, Marshall N. and Conrad L. Longmire
Stability of plasma confined by magnetic fields, Ann. Phys., 1, 120-140, 1957.

Rostoker, Gordon
Polar magnetic substorms, Rev. Geophys., 10,157-211, 1972.

Rostoker, Gordon
Geomagnetic indices, Rev. Geophysics, 10, 935-950, 1972.

Rostoker, Gordon, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Foster, R.A. Greenwald, Y. Kamide, K. Kawasaki, A.T.Y. Lui, R.L. McPherron and C.T. Russell
Magnetospheric Substorms--definitions and signatures, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 1663-1668, 1980.

Rostoker, Gordon and Timothy Eastman
A boundary layer model for magnetospheric substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 12,187-12,201, 1987.

Rufenach, Clifford L., R.L. McPherron and J. Schaper
The quiet geomagnetic field at geosynchronous orbit and its dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 25-42, 1992.

Russell, Christopher T.
Geophysical coordinate transformations, Cosmic Electrodyn., 2, 184-196, 1971.

Russell, Christopher T. and Richard C. Elphic
Initial ISEE magnetometer results: magnetopause observations, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 681-715, 1978.

Russell, Christopher T. and Richard C. Elphic
ISEE observations of flux transfer events at the dayside magnetopause, Geophys. Res. Let., 6, 33-36, 1979.

Schield, Milo A., J. W. Freeman and A. J. Dessler
A source for field-aligned currents at auroral latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 247-256, 1969.

Schindler, Karl and J. Birn
Magnetospheric physics, Physics Reports, 47, 109-165, 1978.

Science (Pioneer 10 at Jupiter) 183, 301-324, 1974.

Science (Mariner 10 at Mercury), 185, 141-184, 1975a.

Science (Pioneer 11 at Jupiter), 188, 445-477, 1975.

Science (Voyager 1 at Jupiter), 204, 945-1008, 1979a.

Science (Voyager 2 at Jupiter), 206, 925-996, 1979b.

Science (Pioneer 11 at Saturn), 207, 400-453, 1980.

Science (Voyager 1 at Saturn), 212, 159-243, 1981.

Science (Voyager 2 at Saturn), 215, 499-594, 1982.

Science (Voyager 2 at Uranus), 233, 39-109, 1986.

Science (Voyager 2 at Neptune), 246, 1417-1501, 1989.

Science (Ulysses at Jupiter), 256, 1487-1502, 1992.

Sckopke, Norbert
A general relation between the energy of trapped particles and the disturbance field near Earth, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 3125-3130, 1966.

Sharp, Richard D., Richard G. Johnson, Edward G. Shelley and K.K. Harris
Energetic O+ ions in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 1844-1850, 1974.

Sharp, Richard D., R.G. Johnson and E.G. Shelley
Observations of an ionosphric acceleration mechanism producing energetic (keV) ions primarily normal to the geomagnetic field directions, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 3324-3328, 1977.

Shawhan, Stanley D.
Magnetospheric plasma waves, p. 211-270 in vol. 3 of Solar System Plasma Physics, C.F. Kennel, L.J. Lanzerotti and E.N. Parker, eds., North Holland 1979.

Shelley, Edward G., R.G. Johnson and R.D. Sharp
Satellite observations of energetic heavy ions during a geomagnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 6104-6110, 1972.

Shelley, Edward G., R.D. Sharp and R.G. Johnson
Satellite observations of an ionospheric acceleration mechanism, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 654-656, 1976.

Shepherd, Gordon G.
Dayside cleft aurora and its ionospheric effects, Rev. Geophys., 17, 2017-2033, 1979.

Sibeck, David G., R.E. Lopez and E.C. Roelof
Solar wind control of the magnetopause shape, location and motion, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 5489-5495, 1991.

Silsbee, H.C. and E.H. Vestine
Geomagnetic bays, their frequency and current systems, J. Geophys. Res., 47, 195-208, 1942.

Simpson, J.A.
A physicist in the world of geophysics and space, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,159-73, 1995.

Singer, S. Fred
A new model of magnetic storms and aurorae, Eos (Transact. Amer. Geophys. Union), 38, 175-190, 1957

Singer, S. Fred
"Radiation belt" and trapped cosmic ray albedo, Phys.Rev. Letters, 1, 171-173, 1958.

Singer, S.Fred and Allen M. Lencheck
Geomagnetically trapped radiation, Progress in Elementary Particle and Cosmic Ray Physics, VI, p. 247-335, North Holland Publ., Amsterdam 1962.

Siscoe, George L.
What's in the name "Magnetospheric substorm"?, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 1643-4, 1980.

Slavin, James A., Edward J. Smith, David G. Sibeck, Daniel N. Baker, Ronald D. Zwickl and Syun-Ichi Akasofu
An ISEE 3 study of the average and substorm conditions in the distant magnetotail, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10,875-10,895, 1985.

Smith, Edward J.
Theoretical and experimental aspects of ring currents, in Space Science, edited by Donald LeGalley, pp. 316-373, John Wiley, New York, 1963.

Smith, Paul H., Robert A. Hoffman and Theodore A. Fritz
Ring current proton decay by charge exchange, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2701-2708, 1976.

Sonnerup, Bengt U.O.
Magnetic field reconnection, p. 45-108 in vol. 3 of Solar System Plasma Physics, C.F. Kennel, L.J. Lanzerotti and E.N. Parker, eds., North Holland 1979.

Sonnerup, Bengt U.O. et al.
Evidence for magnetic field reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 10,049-10,067, 1981.

Spiro, Robert W. and Richard A. Wolf
Electrodynamics of convection in the inner magnetosphere, in Magnetospheric Currents, T.A. Potemra, editor, p. 247-259, Geophysical Monograph 28, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., 1984.

Spitzer, Lyman Jr.
Physics of Fully Ionized Gases, Interscience, NY, 1956 (2nd ed. 1962).

Stern, David P.
The motion of magnetic field lines, Space Sci. Rev., 6, 147-173, 1966.

Stern, David P.
Large-scale electric fields in the Earth's magnetosphere, Rev. Geophys., 15, 156-194, 1977.

Stern, David P.
Energetics of the magnetosphere, Space Sci. Rev., 39, 193-213, 1984.

Stern, David P.
A conversation with Jim Dungey, Eos, 67, 1394-5, 1986.

Stern, David P.
A brief history of magnetospheric physics before the spaceflight era, Rev. Geophys., 27, 103-114, 1989.

Stern, David P.
The Substorm, Eos, 70, 130, 28 February 1989.

Stern, David P.
Substorm Electrodynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 12,057-12067, 1990.

Stern, David P.
The beginning of substorm research, p. 11-14 in Magnetospheric Substorms, J.R.Kan, T.A.Potemra, S. Kokubun and T. Iijima, eds., Geophysical Monograph 64, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC 1991.

Stern, David P.
The linkage between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 44, 1109-1120, 1992.

Stern, David P. and Mauricio Peredo
The exploration of the magnetosphere, internet document http://www~spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/Intro.html (world-wide web), 1995.

Stone, Robert G.
Research results from the Radio Astronomy Explorer, Proceedings of the AIAA 6th Annual Meeting (Anaheim, California 20-24 October, 1969; AIAA Paper 69-1049, 1969.

Sugiura, Masahisa
Identification of the polar cap boundary and the auroral belt in the high-latitude magnetosphere: A model for field-aligned currents, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 2057-2068, 1975.

Sugiura, Masahisa and T.N. Davis
Auroral electrojet activity index AE and its universal time variations, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 785-801, 1966.

Svalgaard, Leif
Sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field and daily variation of the geomagnetic field at high latitudes, Geophys. Paper R-6, Danish Meteorolog. Inst., Copenhagen, 1968.

Svalgaard, Leif
Interplanetary magnetic-sector structure, 1926-1971, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 4027-4034, 1972.

Svalgaard, Leif
Polar cap magnetic variations and their relationship with the interplanetary magnetic sector structure, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 2064-2078, 1973.

Sweet, Peter A.
The effect of turbulence on a magnetic field, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 110, 69-83 , 1950.

Sweet, Peter A.
The neutral point theory of solar flares, p. 123-134 in Electromagnetic Phenomena in Cosmical Physics, B. Lehnert, ed., Cambridge U. Press, London 1958.

Tsuruda, Koichiro, and Hiroshi Oya (c)
Introduction to the Exos-D (Akebono) project, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 293-5, 1991.

Tsyganenko, Nikolai A., D.P. Stern and Z. Kaymaz
Birkeland currents in the plasma sheet, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 19,455-19,464, 1993.

Van Allen, James A.
Observation of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and 1958 gamma, IOWA Univ. preprint SUI 60-13, reprinted in p. 58-75, Space Science Comes of Age, P.A. Hanle and V.D. Chamberlain, editors, Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, DC 1981.

Van Allen, James A.
Origins of Magnetospheric Physics, 144 pp., Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, DC 1983a.

Van Allen, James A.
Genesis of the International Geophysical Year, Eos, 64, 977, 1983b (reprinted on p. 49 in History of Geophysics, vol.1, C.S. Gillmor, ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, 1984).

Van Allen, James, A.
What is a space Scientist? An autobiographical example, Ann. Rev. Earth. Planet. Sci., 18, 1-26, 1990.

Van Allen, James A. (ed.)
Cosmic Rays, The Sun and Geomagnetism: The Works of Scott E. Forbush, 472 pp., AGU, Washington, DC, 1993.

Van Allen, James A.
Early rocket observations of auroral bremstrahlung and its absorption in the mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14,485-497, 1995.

Van Allen, James A., George H. Ludwig, Ernest C. Ray and Carl E. McIlwain
Observation of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 Alpha and Gamma, Jet Propulsion, 28, 588-592, 1958.

Van Allen, James A., C.E. McIlwain and G.H. Ludwig
Radiation observations with satellite 1958 epsilon, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 271-286, 1959.

Van Allen, James A. and L. A. Frank
Radiation measurement to 658,300 km with Pioneer IV, Nature, 184, 219-224, 1959.

Vasyliunas, V.M.
A survey of low-energy electrons in the evening sector of the magnetosphere with OGO 1 and OGO 3, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 2839--2884, 1968.

Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.
Mathematical models of magnetospheric convection and its coupling to the ionosphere, p. 60-71 in Particles and Fields in the Magnetosphere, B.M. McCormac, ed., D. Reidel 1970.

Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.
The interrelationship of magnetospheric processes, p. 29-38 in Earth's Magnetospheric Processes, B.M. McCormac, ed., D. Reidel, 1972.

Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.
Theoretical Models of Magnetic Field Merging, 1, Rev. Geophys., 13, 303-336, 1975.

Vasyliunas, Vytenis M. and Richard A. Wolf
Magnetospheric substorms: Some problems and controversies, Rev. Geophys., 11, 181-189, 1973.

Vernov, S.N., N.L. Grigorov, I.P. Ivanenko, A.I. Lebedinskii, V.S. Murzin and A.E. Chudakov
Possible mechanism of production of "terrestrial corpuscular radiation" under the action of cosmic rays, Soviet Physics (Doklady), 4, 154-157, 1959 (in Russian Doklady 125, 304-307, 1959).

Vestine, Ernest H. and S. Chapman
The electric current system of geomagnetic disturbance, J. Geophys. Res., 43, 351-382, 1938.

Viking Science Team
The Viking program, Eos, 67, 793-795, 21 October 1986.

Voigt, G.-Hannes, and R.-A. Wolf
Quasi-static magnetospheric MHD processes and the "Ground State" of the magnetosphere, Rev. Geophys., 26, 823-843, 1988.

Von Braun, Wernher
The Redstone, Jupiter and Juno, in The History of Rocket Technology, pp. 107-121, E.M.Emme, editor, Wayne State University, Detroit 1964.

Walen, C.
On the distribution of the solar general magnetic field and remarks concerning the geomagnetism and the solar rotation, Arkiv för Matematik Astronomi och Fysik, 33-A, no. 18, 1946.

Walker, Raymond J., T. Ogino, J. Raeder and M. Ashour-Abdalla
A global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is southward: the onset of magnetotail reconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 17,235-17,249, 1993.

White, R. Stephen
The Earth's radiation belts, Physics Today, 19, 25-38, October 1966.

White, R. Stephen
High energy proton radiation belt, Rev. Geophys., 11, 595-632, 1973.

Wilcox, John M. and N.F. Ness
A quasi-stationary co-rotating structure in the interplanetary medium, J. Geophys. Res., 70, 5793-5806, 1965.

Wilcox, John M.
The interplanetary magnetic field, Space Sci. Rev., 8, 258-328, 1968.

Wilcox, John M.
Inferring the interplanetary magnetic field by observing the polar geomagnetic field, Rev. Geophys., 10, 1003-1014, 1972.

Williams, Donald J.
Ring Current and Radiation Belts, Rev. Geophys. , 25, 570-578, 1987.

Williams, Donald J., E.C. Roelof and D.G. Mitchell
Global magnetospheric imaging, Rev. Geophys., 30, 183-208, 1992.

Winckler, John R. and Laurence E. Peterson
Large auroral effect on cosmic ray detectors observed at 8 g/cm2 atmospheric depth, Phys. Rev., 108, 903-4, 1957.

Winckler, John R., Laurence E. Peterson, Roger Arnoldy and Robert Hoffman
X rays from visible aurorae at Minneapolis, Phys. Rev., 110, 1221-1231, 1958.

Wygant, John R., Roy B. Torbert and Forrest S. Mozer
Comparison of S3-3 polar cap potential drops with the interplanetary magnetic field and models of magnetopause reconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5727-35, 1983.

Yaeger, D.M. and L.A. Frank
Low energy electron intensities at large distances over the Earth's polar cap, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 3966-3976, 1976.

Zmuda, Alfred J., J.H. Martin and F.T. Heuring
Transverse magnetic disturbances at 1100 km in the auroral region, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 5033-5045, 1966.

Zmuda, Alfred J. and James C. Armstrong
The diurnal flow pattern of field-aligned currents, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 4611-4619, 1974.

Captions of Figures

1. Explorer 1

2. Counting rate of Explorer 3 during a pass through the radiation belt. The highest rate was encountered during the segment of zero counts.

3. Counting rates of Pioneers 3 and 4, during traversals of the outer radiation belt [Van Allen and Frank, 1959].

4. Regions and currents of the Earth's magnetosphere, representing the state of our knowledge around 1970 [Lopez and Baker, 1994]. A small normal field component on the magnetopause allows some interplanetary field lines to link up with the Earth's field.

5a. Schematic view of the convection pattern produced in a closed magnetosphere by viscous-like forces, as envisioned by Axford and Hines.

5b. Schematic view of the convection in Figure 5a when mapped along field lines to the polar cap. Ideally, the contours are also equipotentials of the electric field, which near the center of the pattern is directed from dawn to dusk.

6. Magnetic merging at an X-type neutral line. Solid lines are magnetic field lines, dashed lines flow lines of the plasma (after Sonnerup [1979]).

7. Schematic view of Dungey's original view of the open magnetosphere, for a purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).

8. Transmission of electric fields along open field lines and to the cross-tail circuit.
9. Cartoon of the connection of the IMF to the magnetosphere, for various IMF orientations: (a) purely southward IMF; (b) southward slanting IMF (c) northward slanting IMF.

10. An example of the auroral energy spectrum, from Franck and Ackerson, [1971].

11. The proposed circuit of Birkeland currents, according to Schield et al. [1969]: JE are region 1 currents connected to the interplanetary field, JP are currents in the polar ionosphere, JB are region 2 currents and JA are currents of the partial ring current that close the circuit across midnight (the terms "region 1" and "region 2" were only introduced in 1976).

12. A straight current impinging on a uniformly conducting infinite flat sheet creates zero magnetic field underneath. By superposing two such patterns, with opposing straight currents, the property is extended to a current flowing into the (flat) ionosphere and out again.

13. A map of the polar ionosphere, showing the average configuration of Birkeland (field aligned) currents there. Regions where the current enters the ionosphere have dark shading, regions where it flows away from Earth and into space have light shading. From Iijima and Potemra, [1976b]; the origin is at the magnetic pole and the Sun's direction is on top.

14. Plot by Akasofu and Chapman [1963] of the magnetic disturbance associated with a magnetic storm, as observed near the equator (Honolulu) and in the auroral zone (College, in Fairbanks Alaska). The latter is punctuated by many "substorms."

15. The stretching of the Earth's magnetic tail during the "growth phase" which precedes a substorm, from Fairfield and Ness [1970].

16. Schematic view of the formation of a near-Earth neutral line (NENL) and a plasmoid, as proposed by the NENL scenario of substorms.

Last updated 25 November 2001
Re-formatted 9-28-2004